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Computer Generated Forces

Setting the Pace for the Future by Incorporating Human Behavior Representation into Computer Generated Forces

The military is increasingly relying on simulation and modeling to develop acquisition strategies, answer questions of readiness, as well as to provide training. And, as anyone who has ever been in combat knows, human performance in combat is a key element to success. From the humans’ ability to do physical work to their ability to make sound decisions, success in combat is largely a function of the human element. Therefore, the value of computer models of combat are greatly affected by their ability to accurately represent the range and variability of expected human behavior.

Computer models of complex human behavior have been around for over 20 years, but their use on computer models of combat continues to be developed. The distributed simulation environments that are being used for training and analysis drive much of the new interest. Today, simulation exercises involve a few dozen real people with the remaining hundreds or even thousands of other battlefield entities being computer simulations. These computer generated forces are becoming a mainstay of current and future military training and analysis.

Since 1984 the MA&D Operation has worked to add realism to human representations through a variety of computer modeling techniques. The MA&D Operation has combined our expertise in human factors with our tools and expertise in modeling and simulation to improve the realism of how the simulated humans behave in computer generated synthetic forces. Additionally, we have embedded these improvements into larger simulations including ModSAF and various derivatives such as DISAF, JointSAF, and OneSAF Testbed Baseline. Our model development environments, such as Micro Saint and IPME, have been used to simulate key aspects of human performance in combat including:

  • Human response to environmental stressors (e.g., fatigue, heat, cold, nuclear, biological, and chemical agents, sea state, blast, MOPP gear)
  • Human response to high workload
  • Complex tactical and strategic decision making
  • The variable nature of expected human performance
  • Training
  • New and evolutionary systems

We have developed some innovative, theoretically sound, and practical ways to implement high fidelity representations of human behavior and we have applied these techniques to real combat simulations. And, we have a series of internally and externally funded R&D projects that keep our technology moving forward.

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